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The part of an evaporator in which we evaporate water from milk. This is a tubular heat exchanger – a series of tubes surrounded by steam. Milk passes through the tubes.


Capital Expenditure.


Main protein present in milk. Casein is made of casein protein molecules which made up of 100-200 amino acids. In milk, casein molecules form micelles.

Casein to fat ratio (C/F)

% casein/% fat = C/F Ratio


A positively charged ion


A piece of equipment that separates substances of different density, for example, milk and cream.


The main body of a spray drier. Sometimes known as a drying tower.


A feature or quality belonging to the product. For example: the way the product smells or tastes.

Chlorine-based sanitisers

A sanitiser that has chlorine in it. Also known as an “oxidising agent” or “oxidiser”.


Clean In Place


The path in the process that the CIP cleaning follows. For example, the pipework, tanks, silos, etc. that are connected together and the cleaning solutions are pumped through.


The separation of solid impurities from milk products using a centrifugal clarifier.


How plants and animals are arranged in groups according to their similarities. Classification makes it easier to identify and name organisms.


A substance that removes dirt from something. Detergent is an example of a cleaner.


The things you do to remove rubbish and residues from something.


Concentrated milkfat – term used for milkfat from an AMF process that is intended for ammix butter manufacture.


Certificate of Analysis. A certificate requested by a customer that details actual results for a specific batch/cypher of the product (i.e. moisture level, protein content, or extra testing additional to standard tests required by MPI).


Cheese: Crumpling together by adding rennet to the cheese vat to curdle (congeal) the milk into a gel.

Cream cheese: Crumpling together by allowing starter to lower this pH of the milk, causing the milk to curdle (congeal) into a gel.


Cheese : The solid gel resulting from the enzyme activity of the rennet on milk.

Cream Cheese : The solid gel resulting from starter bacteria lowering the pH of milk below the isoelectric point of the casein proteins.


Spherical cell.


A family of bacteria that are naturally found in the intestines and faeces of animals and birds.

Colloidal suspension

When very fine solid particles are found evenly throughout a liquid. For example, protein in the water phase of milk.

Colony forming unit (cfu)

Those microorganisms which are strong enough to grow and reproduce, so that a colony can be seen in the agar after a few days.


The milk produced by the cow immediately after calving.




When information is passed between people by speaking, writing, or other methods, such as signage, sirens and signals.

Comply with

Must follow.


A part of something


The things which make up dairy products. For example, fat, protein, water, and ingredients such as vitamins, lactose, or minerals.


How much of one chemical is in a solution.


The liquid you get from a condensed vapour.


Moisture from the air that settles on surfaces.


Turning gas into a liquid by cooling it. For example, turning water vapour into water.

Confined area

Area where there is not much fresh air.


Similar, being or doing in the same way.




Anything that is in your product that should not be there. If the contaminant has the potential to cause harm, for example, make someone sick, the contaminant is also a food product safety hazard.


To make something unsuitable or impure by contact with something unclean.


The action or state of not being pure. Having the presence of an impurity, for example, metal debris.


Changing something into something else.


An acronym for “Clean out of Place”. This refers to equipment that needs to be taken apart and manually cleaned.


A chemical that can destroy the surfaces of plant and equipment.

Critical Control Point (CCP)

A point, step or procedure in a process at which control can be applied and a food product safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to a level that is acceptable. Also known as a CCP.

Critical Hygiene Area

The internal critical environment that includes all areas where product is, or can be, exposed to contamination after pasteurisation.


Where pathogens or other contaminants are passed from one thing to another.


When crystals are formed.

Culinary medium

A medium is a substance like water, steam or a surface that is in direct contact with the product (milk) during heat treatment. It must meet culinary (food safety) standards.


A substance formed when milk coagulates which is used to make cheese or cream cheese.


The solid produced from cheese and casein processing. The coagulum cut into small pieces.

Cured or ripened cheese

Cheese which is not ready for consumption shortly after manufacture, but which must be held for such time, temperature, and under other conditions as will result in the necessary biochemical and physical changes characterising the cheese.


A piece of equipment which uses the principle of centrifugal force to separate larger particles of powder out of the drying air.


Moving in an inwards spiral.

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